Dr Muhannad Yusuf
Advisor to the New Center of Iraq
Social justice is a broad and complex concept. It is difficult and complex in Iraq too. It has multiple dimensions, diverse forms, strange sequences, and undefined patterns, because of the nature of the land and the diverse and moving society in which it lives.
We had discussed the economic dimension of social justice in Iraq, and considered the extent to which members of society participate in the productive process and thus achieve stability and benefit. In addition to the issue of equal opportunities and economic rights in the field of work and ownership in means of production and access to services and information without discrimination, is very important for the Iraqis, the issue of the distribution of natural wealth rights among Iraqis.
This began when Royal Iraq signed oil concession agreements with Western companies in 1924. The share of the ruling family from these agreements, paid by the companies, exceeded that of Iran’s Shah at the time. Only the Khanaqin fields remained a property of the Iraqi government, which drove the companies- under pressure from Iraqi revolutionary movements demanding economic justice- to sign new deals in the early fifties that allocated half of their profits, as sales tax, to the Iraqi government while they retained ownership of the oil assets. However, these agreements did not prevent the cessation of ownership for any reason, and this had served as fuel for the many military coups where the lie of nationalization was trumpeted. And, needless to say, oil was the main reason behind the 2003 US invasion of Iraq which has pushed the nation to the worst examples of oppression and economic subjugation since the discovery of oil. Only government civil servants reap the fruits of Iraq’s wealth.
In sum, the absence of social justice in Iraq is not just the outcome of sectarian discrimination, deprivation, poverty and social rejection, these issues are common in developing societies, but in Iraq they are the consequence of the lack of any government or private sector policies to enable the poor to sustainably enhance their conditions. Iraq’s poor have only disaster-relief charities. That’s why the awareness of Iraqis must be raised concerning their rights, just like enhancing their education, to be able to stand up for their rights and their country.
Social justice, as part of the socioeconomic system, also brings the right to private property to the discussion. Iraqis, especially the Middle Class, used to live in 300 to 600 meter houses and apartments before the American occupation, now the lucky ones live in minuscule 80 to 50 meter residences, the rest, and they are the majority, encroach on public land to have a place to live. The gap and tension between palaces dwellers, who used to be dispossessed, and workers from the middle and lower classes, who have become poorer, have never been more alarming. Helpless, the government and the civil society stand incapable of effecting equality between the classes of the Iraqi people.
As well as the class dimension that comes through the direct relationship between the economic and social system and social justice, which issues that it raises the issue of private property, the Iraqis, especially the middle class of them, were generally owned and lived in houses between 300-600 m. Then after the occupation And many of them today do not find even this small area to live, they accepted to live abuses on public lands, and thus became the class difference between those living in the palaces were poor and among workers of the middle class or between The poor, who have become poorer, are wide, so neither the state nor the society wants to change, they can restore structural equality among the members of society.
Another dimension of social justice concerns the relationship between inherited generations, between present and future generations, not only by conserving and optimizing natural resources, but also by bearing the burden of public debt, which successive governments borrow to pay payroll bills. Despite the lack of oil resources, the deficit from production and inflation in the number of public servants.
Social justice is also linked to the regional dimension related to disparities in the distribution of resources and national income among the regions of the state, and the role of public policies in expanding or reducing these disparities. The budget of Kurdistan over the previous years was proportional to the population and the size of the Iraqi state budget. In Iraq in terms of the population of 2019 is not budget balance of the smallest city of another Iraqi, and the budget of Sulaymaniyah is ten times the budget of Diyala equal population, and this disparity in the distribution of resources will make social justice This dimension is a cause of separation between the provinces and cities.
The political dimension of social justice relates to the issues of sovereign rights, political empowerment and the participation of society in national decision-making, the external political dimension related to the quality of relations between the Iraqi state and other countries, and the degree of equality, exploitation or domination, Iraq is still under the seventh item of the Security Council, i.e. the status of the UN mandate, in the sense that it is still in the state of statehood and cannot even today impose its sovereignty and authority on the land Resources and wisdom, either with the region, Kuwait, for example, swallowed Iraq by an area of land and water and is still asking for more of it, and Iran took advantage of his youth and his land to the height and width and Iraq became the background of her garden, and Jordan is linked to Iraq as much as Tsule and blackmail him, and the rest is no better case than that.
Therefore, when we call for multidimensional goals of social justice in a country like Iraq, our basic issue is how to get rid of this backwardness and material and intellectual dependence and how we can achieve our goals in a comprehensive, sustainable and independent development with economic, social, political and institutional dimensions. Social and sustainable development dimensions. Justice ends in growth and development, and the beginning of sustainable development ends with the need to take justice into account.